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| What is MAD ?
MAD (Michigan Algorithm Decoder) is a programming language and compiler for the IBM 704 and later the IBM 709, IBM 7090, UNIVAC 1107, UNIVAC 1108, Philco 210-211, and eventually the IBM S/370 mainframe computers. Developed in 1959 at the University of Michigan by Bernard Galler, Bruce Arden and Robert M. Graham, MAD is a variant of the International Algebraic Language (IAL). It was widely used to teach programming at colleges and universities during the 1960s and played a minor role in the development of CTSS, Multics, and the Michigan Terminal System computer operating systems.
There are three MAD compilers: Original MAD, the compiler developed in 1959 at the University of Michigan for the IBM 704 and later the IBM 709 and IBM 7090 mainframe computers running the University of Michigan Executive System (UMES) and the Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS) operating systems.In the mid-1960s MAD was ported at the University of Maryland to the UNIVAC 1108.Versions of MAD were also available for the Philco 210-211 and UNIVAC 1107. MAD/I, an “extended” version of MAD for the IBM System/360 series of computers running under the Michigan Terminal System (MTS). Work on the new compiler started in 1965 as part of the ARPA sponsored CONCOMP project at the University of Michigan. As work progressed it gradually became clear that MAD/I was a new language independent of the original 7090 version of MAD. GOM (Good Old MAD), a reimplementation of the original 7090 MAD for the IBM System/370 series of mainframe computers running the Michigan Terminal System (MTS). GOM was created in the early 1980s by Don Boettner at the University of Michigan Computing Center.
Arrays and matrices
There is no limit on the number of dimensions.
Negative and zero as well as floating-point subscripts are allowed.
Matrices are storied in consecutive memory locations in the order determined by varying the rightmost subscript first.
Matrices may be referenced using a subscript for each dimension, NAME(s1,s2,s3), or using a single subscript, NAME(s1).
Input-output lists, VECTOR VALUES statements, and some subroutines allow the use of block notation, which has the form A,…,B or A…B, which is a reference to the entire region from A to B.
inclusive. In terms of a vector, A(1)…A(N) would be A(1), A(2), A(3), …, A(N).
There are facilities that allow changing dimensions at run-time; permitting the programmer to vary the location of the initial element in an array within the overall block which has been set aside for the array; and allowing an arbitrary storage mapping to be specified.
Operator definition and redefinition
One of the most interesting features in MAD is the ability to extend the language by redefining existing operators, defining new operators, or defining new data types (modes). The definitions are made using MAD declaration statements and assembly language mnemonics included following the declaration up to the END pseudo-instruction that implement the operation.